Reference Information for Psychotropic Meds
This is only for reference and is not for diagnosis or treatment. Only a licensed medical professional can provide this to you.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) • Citalopram (Celexa) • Escitalopram (Lexapro, Cipralex) • Paroxetine (Paxil, Seroxat) • Fluoxetine (Prozac) • Fluvoxamine (Luvox) • Sertraline (Zoloft, Lustral) Zimelidine (Normud, Zelmid) and indalpine (Upstene) were also formerly used as antidepressants, but were withdrawn from the market. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) • Desvenlafaxine (Pristiq) • Duloxetine (Cymbalta) • Levomilnacipran (Fetzima) • Milnacipran (Ixel, Savella) • Tofenacin (Elamol, Tofacine) • Venlafaxine (Effexor) Serotonin modulators and stimulators (SMSs) • Vilazodone (Viibryd) • Vortioxetine (Brintellix) These drugs act as serotonin reuptake inhibitors and agonize/antagonize various serotonin receptors. Serotonin antagonists and reuptake inhibitors (SARIs) • Etoperidone (Axiomin, Etonin) • Nefazodone (Nefadar, Serzone) – withdrawn/discontinued in many countries • Trazodone (Desyrel) These drugs act as antagonists of various serotonin receptors and as weak monoamine reuptake inhibitors. Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs) • Reboxetine (Edronax) • Viloxazine (Vivalan) Atomoxetine (Strattera) is also sometimes used as an antidepressant, but is not specifically approved for this purpose. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs] • Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) • Amitriptylinoxide (Amioxid, Ambivalon, Equilibrin) • Clomipramine (Anafranil) • Desipramine (Norpramin, Pertofrane) • Dibenzepin (Noveril, Victoril) • Dosulepin (Prothiaden) • Doxepin (Adapin, Sinequan) • Imipramine (Tofranil) • Lofepramine (Lomont, Gamanil) • Melitracen (Dixeran, Melixeran, Trausabun) • Nitroxazepine (Sintamil) • Nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl) • Noxiptiline (Agedal, Elronon, Nogedal) • Pipofezine (Azafen/Azaphen) • Protriptyline (Vivactil) • Trimipramine (Surmontil) Butriptyline (Evadyne), demexiptiline (Deparon, Tinoran), imipraminoxide (Imiprex, Elepsin), iprindole (Prondol, Galatur, Tetran), metapramine (Timaxel), propizepine (Depressin, Vagran), and quinupramine (Kinupril, Kevopril) were also formerly marketed, but have since been discontinued. The following are also TCAs, but are atypical pharmacologically: • Opipramol (Insidon) – sigma receptor agonist • Tianeptine (Stablon) – unknown/unclear mechanism of action, has both serotonin reuptake enhancer and weak μ-opioid agonist actions in vitro Amineptine (Survector, Maneon) is another atypical TCA, acting as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (NDRI), but was withdrawn from the market. Tiazesim (Altinil) is technically not a TCA, but it is a heterocyclic antidepressant that is very closely related. Similarly to various TCAs, it is no longer marketed. Octriptyline (SC-27,123) is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that was never marketed. Tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs) • Amoxapine (Asendin) • Maprotiline (Ludiomil) • Mianserin (Bolvidon, Norval, Tolvon) • Mirtazapine (Remeron) • Setiptiline (Tecipul) Mianserin, mirtazapine, and setiptiline are also sometimes described as noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) Irreversible Non-selective • Isocarboxazid (Marplan) • Phenelzine (Nardil) • Tranylcypromine (Parnate) Many others, including benmoxin (Neuralex), iproclozide (Sursum), iproniazid (Marsilid), mebanazine (Actomol), nialamide (Niamid), octamoxin (Ximaol), pheniprazine (Catron), phenoxypropazine (Drazine), pivhydrazine (Tersavid), and safrazine (Safra) were used as antidepressants in the past, but have since been discontinued. Selective for MAO-B • Selegiline (Eldepryl, Zelapar, Emsam) Reversible Non-selective Caroxazone (Surodil, Timostenil) was formerly used as an antidepressant, but has been discontinued. Selective for MAO-A • Metralindole (Inkazan) • Moclobemide (Aurorix, Manerix) • Pirlindole (Pirazidol) • Toloxatone (Humoryl) These drugs are sometimes described as reversible inhibitors of MAO-A (RIMAs). Eprobemide (Befol) and minaprine (Brantur, Cantor) were also formerly used as antidepressants, but have been discontinued. Atypical antipsychotics • Amisulpride (Solian) – specifically approved as a monotherapy for dysthymia • Lurasidone (Latuda) – specifically approved as a monotherapy for depressive episodes in bipolar disorder • Quetiapine (Seroquel) – specifically approved as a monotherapy for depressive episodes in bipolar disorder Others Marketed • Agomelatine (Valdoxan) – 5-HT2C receptor antagonist and MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist – sometimes described as a norepinephrine-dopamine disinhibitor (NDDI) • Bupropion (Wellbutrin) – NRI and non-competitive antagonist of various neuronal nACh receptors • Ketamine (Ketalar) – primarily a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label) • Tandospirone (Sediel) – 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist • Teniloxazine (Lucelan, Metatone) – NRI and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist Discontinued/withdrawn from the market • α-Methyltryptamine [αMT] (Indopan) – multiple serotonin receptor agonist, serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA), and weak RIMA • Etryptamine [α-Ethyltryptamine (αET)] (Monase) – multiple serotonin receptor agonist, SNDRA, and weak RIMA • Medifoxamine (Cledial, Gerdaxyl) – dopamine reuptake inhibitor (DRI) and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist • Nomifensine (Merital, Alival) – NDRI • Oxaflozane (Conflictan) – 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT2C receptor agonist Over-the-counter The following antidepressants are available both with a prescription and over-the-counter: • Ademetionine [S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe)] (Heptral, Transmetil, Samyl) – cofactor in monoamine neurotransmitter biosynthesis • Hypericum perforatum [St. John's Wort (SJW)] (Jarsin, Kira, Movina) – TRPC6 activator, and various other actions • Oxitriptan [5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)] (Cincofarm, Levothym, Triptum) – precursor in serotonin biosynthesis • Tryptophan (Tryptan, Optimax, Aminomine) – precursor in serotonin biosynthesis Adjunctive treatments Atypical antipsychotics • Aripiprazole (Abilify) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder • Lurasidone (Latuda) – specifically approved as an adjunct for depressive episodes in bipolar disorder • Olanzapine (Zyprexa) – specifically approved as an adjunct for major depressive disorder • Quetiapine (Seroquel) – approved as an adjunct for both major depressive disorder and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder • Ziprasidone (Geodon) - approved by the FDA for the treatment of schizophrenia, and acute mania and mixed states associated with bipolar disorder Others • Buspirone (BuSpar) – 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label) • Lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid) – mood stabilizer (exact mechanism of action unknown) – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label) • Thyroxine (T4) – thyroid hormone (THR agonist) – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label) • Triiodothyronine (T3) – thyroid hormone (THR agonist) – not specifically approved for depression (used off-label) Combination products • Amitriptyline/perphenazine (Etafron) – TCA and typical antipsychotic combination • Flupentixol/melitracen (Deanxit) – TCA and typical antipsychotic combination • Olanzapine/fluoxetine (Symbyax) – SSRI and atypical antipsychotic combination – specifically approved as a monotherapy for depressive episodes in bipolar disorder Currently in clinical trials (investigational) • ALKS-5461 (buprenorphine/samidorphan) – κ-opioid receptor antagonist • AV-101 – NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist • Basimglurant (RG7090) – mGlu5 receptor negative allosteric modulator • CERC-301 (MK-0657) – NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) antagonist • CERC-501 (LY-2456302) – κ-opioid receptor antagonist • Esketamine – non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist • LY-2940094 – nociceptin receptor antagonist • NRX-1074 – NMDA receptor glycine site partial agonist • NSI-189 – hippocampal neurotrophin (exact mechanism of action unknown) • Rapastinel (GLYX-13) – NMDA receptor glycine site partial agonist • RO4491533 – mGlu2 and mGlu3 receptor negative allosteric modulator • Tramadol (ETS6103/Viotra) – μ-opioid receptor agonist, δ- and κ-opioid receptor ligand, serotonin releasing agent (SRA), NRI, 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, NMDAR antagonist, α7 nAChR antagonist, M1 and M3 receptor antagonist, and TRPV1 agonist